Defence structure

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Umbrella term for fortifications that were either purposely constructed in the water or that were once terrestrial and became inundated as a result of sea-level change.


A barrier can consist of oblique or vertical wooden piles, stones or log coffins filled with stones [1] A sea barrier or harbour facility can be integrated in a wider defence structure.

Paaluvarustuksia Raaseporin linnalla.jpg

Part of pile defence structure at the site Raasepori of castle in Finland. Photo: Sallamaria Tikkanen, Finnish Heritage Agency.

Suokki länsi-mustasaaren väyläeste Maija Huttunen 2011.jpg

Underwater defence structure at Suomenlinna, Helsinki, Finland. Photo: Maija Huttunen.

  1. Guide for Archaeological Heritage in Finland: underwater defence structure:;vedenalainen-estevarustus