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Eutrophication is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients (often as a consequence of over-fertilisation), which induce excessive growth of algae. This process may result in oxygen depletion of the water body and reduces visibility.

While oxygen depletion is favourable in terms of anaerobic preservation, and thus an in situ conservation stategy, the reduction of visibility limits opportunities for research or for making underwater cultural heritage accessible for the public.